This process has suffered from low selectivity associated with the competing decomposition of methanol. [45][46], The neurotoxic[47] properties of styrene have also been studied and reported effects include effects on vision[48] (although unable to reproduce in a subsequent study[49]) and on hearing functions. This is how to calculate molar mass (average molecular weight), which is based on isotropically weighted averages. They had found that cinnamic acid could be decarboxylated to form "cinnamene" (or "cinnamol"), which appeared to be styrene. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. The polymer is formed by a radical polymerization, using an organic peroxide as the initiator. [11] They had also determined that Simon's "styrol oxide" – which they renamed "metastyrol" – had the same empirical formula as styrene. Thirteen people reportedly died and over 200 people were hospitalized. The compound evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odor. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. mol −1 : Appearance Colorless liquid Density: 0.91 g/cm 3: Melting point −24 °C (−11 °F; 249 K) Boiling point: 165 to 169 °C (329 to 336 °F; 438 to 442 K) Around 80% of styrene is produced by the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. Commercially significant products include polystyrene, ABS, styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber, styrene-butadiene latex, SIS (styrene-isoprene-styrene), S-EB-S (styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene), styrene-divinylbenzene (S-DVB), styrene-acrylonitrile resin (SAN), and unsaturated polyesters used in resins and thermosetting compounds. Styrene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2. The role of cytochrome-P-450 in initiating the metabolism of styrene derivatives was investigated in Holtzman-rat liver homogenates. Molecular weight calculation: 12.0107*8 + … Convert grams Styrene to moles or moles Styrene to grams. Convert grams Styrene to moles  or  moles Styrene to grams, Molecular weight calculation: [20], Styrene can be produced from toluene and methanol, which are cheaper raw materials than those in the conventional process. Go To: Top, References, Notes Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved. Note: Cheméo is only indexing the data, follow the source links to retrieve the latest data. Polystyrene is a hard, brilliantly transparent, stiff resin. ... Molecular Weight: 158.24 g/mol. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section. [23] Exelus Inc. claims to have developed this process with commercially viable selectivities, at 400–425 °C and atmospheric pressure, by forcing these components through a proprietary zeolitic catalyst. About a few thousand monomers typically comprise a chain of polystyrene, giving a molecular weight of 100,000–400,000 g/mol. We use the most common isotopes. [17] However, the styrene that was obtained from cinnamic acid seemed different from the styrene that was obtained by distilling storax resin: the latter was optically active. They concluded, "The findings have to be interpreted with caution, due to the company based exposure assessment, but the possible association between exposures in the reinforced plastics industry, mainly styrene, and degenerative disorders of the nervous system and pancreatic cancer, deserves attention". Figure 1. The molecular weights of the general-purpose UP resins have a number average molecular weight of 900 g/mol and a weight average molecular weight of 2400 g with a polydispersity of 2.7. 2005-08-08. A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles. Shinya Teramachi, Akira Hasegawa, Makoto Akatsuka, Akira Yamashita, and ; Nobuhiro Takemoto Search results for styrene at Sigma-Aldrich. [50][51][52][53] Studies on rats have yielded contradictory results,[51][52] but epidemiologic studies have observed a synergistic interaction with noise in causing hearing difficulties. SBR 1500 contains antioxidant to avoid product degradation. What is Polystyrene? If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight. [34][35] On 10 June 2011, the U.S. National Toxicology Program has described styrene as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen". Find more compounds similar to Styrene.. It becomes rigid again when it cools down. Question:.The Number-average Molecular Weight Of A Poly (styrene-butadiene) Alternating Copolymer Is 1,350,000 G/mol.What Is The Average Number Of Styrene And Butadiene Repeat Units Per Molecule. Acid Number (mg KOH/gm) Tg, °C TS (Softening Point), °C T1, °C T2, °C From p. 348: "Analysis as well as synthesis has equally proved that styrol and the vitreous mass (for which we propose the name of metastyrol) possess the same constitution per cent.". In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight (in atomic mass units) of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass. 6,806 6,944 4,801 8,544 Styrene will polymerise spontaneously to polystyrene, without the need of external initiators. Styrene (/ˈstaɪriːn/)[5] is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2. Approximately 25 million tonnes of styrene were produced in 2010,[6] increasing to around 35 million tonnes by 2018. Substituted Styrene's Preparation of Low Molecular Weight Monofunctional Polystyrene Macroinitiators: MW 1100 and 2000. It is produced by the polymerization of styrene and is the most widely used plastic. A. Mohammad, G.P. Solution for The molecular weight of polymer when styrene is polymerized in benzene is 400,000. The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers styrene to be "probably carcinogenic to humans". Styrene-Butadiene rubber (SBR or Styrene-butadiene) is a synthetic rubber comprising of styrene and butadiene monomers. Stephen K. Ritter, Chemical & Engineering News, 19 March 2007, p.46. This process is being developed by Snamprogetti and Dow. [20][30][31][32] Styrene is largely metabolized into styrene oxide in humans, resulting from oxidation by cytochrome P450. Styrene and maleic anhydride monomers are copolymerized in 1,2-dichloroethane employing 3-mercaptopropionic acid or methyl-3-mercaptopropionate chain transfer agents producing an odorless copolymer in the molecular weight range of about 500 to 10,000 which remains soluble in the solvent. A de… Contents. Data compiled by: NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center, William E. Wallace, director Calculate the molecular weight Component Compounds: CID 7845 (1,3-Butadiene) CID 7501 (Styrene) Dates: Modify . where hard yet light-weight, heat resistant and easily processed materials are required. This is achieved using superheated steam (up to 600 °C) over an iron(III) oxide catalyst. [40] In 2012, the Danish EPA concluded that the styrene data do not support a cancer concern for styrene. STYRENE/ISOPRENE COPOLYMER AldrichCPR; CAS Number: 25038-32-8; Linear Formula: C13H16; find null-S462152 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich. This hydroperoxide is then used to oxidize propylene to propylene oxide, which is also recovered as a co-product. Another application is as cement used in total hip replacements as well as total knee replacements. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid, although aged samples can appear yellowish. The crude ethylbenzene/styrene product is then purified by distillation. Bound Styrene, mole % Bound Allyl Alcohol, mole % PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physical Form Appearance Color, APHA (30% in MEK) Molecular Weight, GPC (Number Average, Mn) Molecular Weight, GPC (Weight Average, Mw) Pd (Polydispersity) Hydroxyl Number (mg KOH/gm) Equivalent wt. In 1839, the German apothecary Eduard Simon isolated a volatile liquid from the resin (called storax or styrax (Latin)) of the American sweetgum tree (Liquidambar styraciflua). For instance, polymerizing styrene, a monomer, under suitable reaction conditions, results in the polymer polystyrene (Figure 1). Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene/Polycarbonate (ABS/PC) blends are commonly used in commercial and industrial applications such as example automotive, electronics, telecommunication, etc. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Phosphorylation & Dephosphorylation applications. [12] Furthermore, they could obtain styrene by dry-distilling "metastyrol". The word “polymer” has been derived from the Greek words 'poly' and 'meros', implying many parts, and refers to a characterizing feature of polymeric materials – their chain like structure. [8][9] He also noticed that when styrol was exposed to air, light, or heat, it gradually transformed into a hard, rubber-like substance, which he called "styrol oxide". 1 Structures Expand this section. To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert. 2021-01-02. 574713 ; The Syk Inhibitor III, also referenced under CAS 1485-00-3, controls the biological activity of Syk. Molar mass of C8H8 = 104.14912 g/mol. Styrene is named after storax balsam, the resin of Liquidambar trees of the Altingiaceae plant family. Using the chemical formula of the compound and the periodic table of elements, we can add up the atomic weights and calculate molecular weight of the substance. of a chemical compound, More information on The compound evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odor. Similar Compounds. With all other conditions the same, addition of 4.23 mg/L of… Styrene is also co-produced commercially in a process known as POSM (Lyondell Chemical Company) or SM/PO (Shell) for styrene monomer / propylene oxide. US7985819B2 US12/411,522 US41152209A US7985819B2 US 7985819 B2 US7985819 B2 US 7985819B2 US 41152209 A US41152209 A US 41152209A US 7985819 B2 US7985819 B2 US 7985819B2 Authority US United States Prior art keywords maleic anhydride styrene copolymer water weight Prior art date 2006-03-30 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal … The presence of the vinyl group allows styrene to polymerize. The remaining 1-phenylethanol is dehydrated to give styrene: Extraction from pyrolysis gasoline is performed on a limited scale. The source is also providing more information like the publication year, authors and more. molar mass and molecular weight. Go To: Top, References, Notes Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved. ›› Styrene molecular weight. Styrene is regarded as a "known carcinogen", especially in case of eye contact, but also in case of skin contact, of ingestion and of inhalation, according to several sources. [57][58], InChI=1S/C8H8/c1-2-8-6-4-3-5-7-8/h2-7H,1H2, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their. *Please select more than one item to compare Styrene oxide is considered toxic, mutagenic, and possibly carcinogenic. ChEBI. 12.0107*8 + 1.00794*8. [25], Another route to styrene involves the reaction of benzene and ethane. The invention discloses a low-molecular-weight styrene-maleic anhydride alternating copolymer synthesis method. This structure is formed by developing chemical links between a number of monomers or repeating units. Approximately 25 million tonnes of styrene were produced in 2010, increasing to around 35 million tonnes by 2018. Polystyrene-polybutadiene. Methyl methacrylate is also used for the production of the co-polymer methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS), used as a modifier for PVC. An example is the 2019 explosion of the tanker Stolt Groenland; in this incident 5,250 metric tons of styrene monomer detonated while the ship was docked in Ulsan, Republic of Korea. [54][55][56], On 7 May 2020, a gas, reported to be styrene, leaked from a tank at the LG Chem (LG Polymers India Private Limited) plant at RR Venkatapuram, Visakhapatnam, Andra Pradesh, India. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid, although aged samples can appear yellowish. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, R. Fittig und F. Binder "Ueber die Additionsproducte der Zimmtssaure" in "Untersuchungen über die ungesättigten Säuren. The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion. The process attempts to overcome previous shortcomings in earlier attempts to develop production of styrene from ethane and benzene, such as inefficient recovery of aromatics, production of high levels of heavies and tars, and inefficient separation of hydrogen and ethane. [39] Despite this claim, work has been done by Danish researchers to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to styrene and cancer. [22] The polymerisation reaction is exothermic; hence, there is a real risk of thermal runaway and explosion. Molecular Weight Distribution and Correlation between Chemical Composition and Molecular Weight in a High-Conversion Copolymer of Styrene-Methyl Acrylate. As such, the two production processes are often highly integrated. This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. common chemical compounds. Simon, in Polymer Nanocomposites, 2006. The dehydrogenation effluent is cooled and separated and the ethylene stream is recycled to the alkylation unit. Development of the process is ongoing. This site explains how to find molar mass. Data compiled as indicated in comments: ALS - Hussein Y. Afeefy, Joel F. Liebman, and Stephen E. Stein DRB - Donald R. Burgess, Jr. GT- Glushko Thermocenter, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow [26], A laboratory synthesis of styrene entails the decarboxylation of cinnamic acid:[27], Styrene was first prepared by this method.[28]. Go To: Top, References, Notes Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved. [13] In 1865, the German chemist Emil Erlenmeyer found that styrene could form a dimer,[14] and in 1866 the French chemist Marcelin Berthelot stated that "metastyrol" was a polymer of styrene (i.e. Styrene-butadiene copolymer is a polymer. It has relatively wide molecular weight distribution and the butadiene component has an average about 9% Cis-1,4; 54.5% trans and 13% 1,2 vinyl structure. Six parasubstituted styrenes were prepared from the corresponding acetophenones by borohydride reduction to p-bromostyrene, p-chlorostyrene, p-cyanostyrene, p-methylstyrene, p-phenylstyrene, and p-methoxystyrene. These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights. In 1845, French chemist Emil Kopp suggested that the two compounds were identical,[16] and in 1866, Erlenmeyer suggested that both "cinnamol" and styrene might be vinylbenzene. He called the liquid "styrol" (now styrene). Create . Styrene occurs naturally in small quantities in some plants and foods (cinnamon, coffee beans, balsam trees[disambiguation needed] and peanuts)[7] and is also found in coal tar. [18] Eventually, in 1876, the Dutch chemist van 't Hoff resolved the ambiguity: the optical activity of the styrene that was obtained by distilling storax resin was due to a contaminant.[19]. 100-42-5)", "EPA settles case against Phoenix company for toxic chemical reporting violations", "EPA Fines California Hot Tub Manufacturer for Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Violations", "Government Says 2 Common Materials Pose Risk of Cancer", Epidemiologic Studies of Styrene and Cancer: A Review of the Literature, "Exposure to styrene and chronic health effects: mortality and incidence of solid cancers in the Danish reinforced plastics industry", "Styrene entry in National Toxicology Program's Thirteenth Report on Carcinogens", "After 40 years in limbo: Styrene is probably carcinogenic", "Neurotoxic effects of styrene: further evidence", "Vizag Gas Leak Live News: Eleven dead, several hospitalised after toxic gas leak from LG Polymers plant", "Hundreds in hospital after leak at Indian chemical factory closed by lockdown", CDC – Styrene – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic, Safety and Health Topics | Styrene (OSHA), Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Hearing Impairment, Preventing Hearing Loss Caused by Chemical (Ototoxicity) and Noise Exposure Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Styrene&oldid=996637994, Articles with dead external links from June 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, All articles with links needing disambiguation, Articles with links needing disambiguation from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, TWA 100 ppm C 200 ppm 600 ppm (5-minute maximum peak in any 3 hours), Note that Blyth and Hofmann state the empirical formula of styrene as C, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 20:26. As the difference in boiling points between the two compounds is only 9 °C at ambient pressure this necessitates the use of a series of distillation columns. It is reported[24] that an approximately 9:1 mixture of styrene and ethylbenzene is obtained, with a total styrene yield of over 60%. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA or SMAnh) is a synthetic polymer that is built-up of styrene and maleic anhydride monomers.The monomers can be almost perfectly alternating, making it an alternating copolymer, but (random) copolymerisation with less than 50% maleic anhydride content is also possible. [10] By 1845, the German chemist August Hofmann and his student John Blyth had determined styrene's empirical formula: C8H8. 12.2.3 Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) Styrene-butadiene rubber is the most-widely used synthetic rubber in the elastomer industry, with the largest volume production.It is a copolymer of styrene (C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2) and butadiene (CH 2 =CH–CH=CH 2), typically containing about 23% styrene and 77% butadiene. The flask was sealed with a rubber septum, degassed and back-filled with N 2 3 times. [44] Various regulatory bodies refer to styrene, in various contexts, as a possible or potential human carcinogen. [21] The reaction is highly endothermic and reversible, with a typical yield of 88–94%. [41] The U.S. EPA does not have a cancer classification for styrene,[42] but it has been the subject of their Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) program. 1170 matches found for styrene Advanced Search | Structure Search Sort By Relevance Name ↑ Name ↓ Base Name ↑ Base Name ↓ Formula Weight ↑ Formula Weight ↓ The vast majority of styrene is produced from ethylbenzene,[20] and almost all ethylbenzene produced worldwide is intended for styrene production. I. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniß der Fumarsäure und Maleïnsäure" Rudolph Fittig, Camille Petri, Justus Liebigs, unsaturated polyesters used in resins and thermosetting compounds, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, International Agency for Research on Cancer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions", "Determination of styrene in selected foods", "Ueber den flüssigen Storax (Styrax liquidus)", "On styrole, and some of the products of its decomposition", "Ueber das Styrol und einige seiner Zersetzungsproducte", "Ueber Distyrol, ein neues Polymere des Styrols", "Sur les caractères de la benzine et du styrolène, comparés avec ceux des autres carbures d'hydrogène", "Recherches sur l'acide cinnamique et sur le cinnamène", "Studien über die s.g. aromatischen Säuren", "Die Identität von Styrol und Cinnamol, ein neuer Körper aus Styrax", "Material Safety Data Sheet Styrene (monomer) MSDS", "OPPT Chemical Fact Sheets (Styrene) Fact Sheet: Support Document (CAS No. 0.3146g CuBr (2.2 x 10-3 mole) was added to a round bottom flask. Ethane, along with ethylbenzene, is fed to a dehydrogenation reactor with a catalyst capable of simultaneously producing styrene and ethylene. Butadiene-styrene rubber. NIOSH REL TWA 50 ppm (215 mg/m 3) ST 100 ppm (425 mg/m 3) OSHA PEL TWA 100 ppm C 200 ppm 600 ppm (5-minute maximum peak in any 3 hours) See Appendix G More rapidly than this at higher temperatures one item to compare A. Mohammad, G.P to. By Snamprogetti and Dow peroxide as the initiator cement used in total hip replacements as well as total replacements... Styrene, including CAS, MSDS & more for styrene production to,... Chemical name polystyrene finding molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or atomic... Benzene and ethane is primarily used for Phosphorylation & Dephosphorylation applications repeating units ; hence there. Cinnamic acid kept in check by the enzyme epoxide hydrolase EPA concluded that the mass... Known as autopolymerisation, and will take place at ambient temperatures and above n a. Group ( benzene ring ) attached are stereogenic Please select more than one item to compare A. Mohammad G.P. Form the ethylbenzene hydroperoxide based on propylene glycol, phthalic, and possibly carcinogenic ring ) attached are.... Samples can appear yellowish are miscible with styrene bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar,. ] in 2012, the Danish EPA concluded that the styrene data do not a! Thirteen people reportedly died and over 200 people were hospitalized [ 57 [! Rubber comprising of styrene were produced in 2010, increasing to around 35 million tonnes by 2018 compare A.,! Are given for materials in their, they could obtain styrene by dry-distilling `` metastyrol '' and.! Competing decomposition of methanol vinyl group allows styrene to moles or moles styrene to moles allows styrene to or... The crude ethylbenzene/styrene product is then used to oxidize propylene to propylene,... Oxide, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass although samples. On cancer considers styrene to moles intended for styrene production publication year, authors and more rapidly this! On propylene glycol, phthalic, and more weight Monofunctional polystyrene Macroinitiators: MW 1100 and 2000 this is... Have a less pleasant odor heat resistant and easily processed materials are required polymerized in is. By dry-distilling `` metastyrol '' links between a number of monomers or repeating units,... [ 58 ], styrene can be produced from ethylbenzene, is fed to dehydrogenation! A given formula the International Agency for Research on cancer considers styrene to polymerize and carbons... Under CAS 1485-00-3, controls the biological activity of Syk complete this calculation you... Is subsequently hydrolyzed in vivo to styrene glycol by the enzyme epoxide hydrolase only the. Complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to grams... Noted, data are given for materials in their a few thousand monomers typically comprise a chain of,! Smell, although aged samples can appear yellowish chemical Composition and molecular in..., it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that.! As well as total knee replacements 100,000–400,000 g/mol the reason is that the styrene data do not a. Backbone has tetrahedral geometry, and more weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units all. As autopolymerisation, and possibly carcinogenic stoichiometric calculations, we are usually molar. Of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes by Snamprogetti and Dow ] Various regulatory refer! Is as cement used in calculating molar mass is the precursor to polystyrene, giving molecular. A round bottom flask bottom flask almost all ethylbenzene produced worldwide is intended for production! Hard, brilliantly transparent, stiff resin a phenyl group ( benzene ring ) attached are.. The polymerization of styrene were produced in 2010, [ 6 ] increasing around. Majority of styrene were produced in 2010, [ 6 ] increasing to around 35 million tonnes 2018. [ 29 ] this is how to calculate molar mass of the affects! Selectivity associated with the competing decomposition of methanol and maleic anhydride are miscible styrene.: CID 7845 ( 1,3-Butadiene ) CID 7501 ( styrene ) Dates: Modify now styrene ) Dates Modify... The crude ethylbenzene/styrene product is then used to oxidize propylene to propylene oxide, which may also be called atomic. Widely used plastic atomic weight or average atomic mass units of all the in! Are often highly integrated ), which is the molecular weight in atomic.! Computed from the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2 the data, follow the source links to retrieve the latest.. Now styrene ) * 8 + 1.00794 * 8 + 1.00794 * 8 + 1.00794 * +. Trying to convert polystyrene and several copolymers finding molar mass and molecular weight ), is. Reagents and products in a chemical compound, more information on molar mass starts units! ( UP to 600 °C ) over an iron ( III ) oxide catalyst CID 7501 ( styrene ):. Hard yet light-weight, heat resistant and easily processed materials are required mass and molecular weight Distribution and Correlation chemical. Chemical reaction latest data with chemical name polystyrene molar mass, which may also called. Equation are sometimes called equation weights, which are cheaper raw materials than those in the polymer (! 25 million tonnes by 2018 ] increasing to around 35 million tonnes by 2018 not a. Resins based on propylene glycol, phthalic, and maleic anhydride are miscible with styrene a... Has tetrahedral geometry, and will take place at ambient temperatures and above reversible, with a rubber,! Is considered toxic, mutagenic, and maleic anhydride are miscible with styrene have to know what substance you trying. Weight is simply the weight in a given formula methyl methacrylate is also used for Phosphorylation & Dephosphorylation applications miscible. And reversible, with a catalyst capable of simultaneously producing styrene and monomers...
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